A disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by lack of
impulse control, inattentiveness, inability to concentrate and hyperactivity.
Also called attention deficit disorder (ADD). The existence of ADHD can also
occur in adults.
The most common form of dementia in older persons that affects
many areas of cognitive function, particularly relating to memory loss.
It is slowly progressive and significantly affects activities
of daily living.
The loss of the ability to speak, or to understand written or spoken language.
A person who cannot speak or understand language is said to be aphasic.
Bipolar Disorder (manic
Where the individual has episodes of mania (or hypomania) alone or with depressive
episodes at other times. Can occur as mixed episodes and with varying degrees
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Body weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared used
as a practical marker to assess obesity or eating disorder.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Any abnormal condition characterized
by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels. CVD includes atherosclerosis
(especially coronary heart disease which can lead to heart attacks),
cerebrovascular disease pertaining to the brain (e.g., stroke), and hypertension
(high blood pressure). Such conditions can lead to the occurrence of
dementia and cognitive impairment as well as various psychosocial issues.
CVD pertaining to the brain, see above.
Registered psychologists have 4 years' undergraduate
study, followed by either 2 years of supervised experience with a registered
psychologist or completion of a postgraduate clinical masters or doctoral
degree in clinical psychology. Clinical psychologists (i.e. those who
have completed the postgraduate clinical qualifications) also have
to spend some time working under the supervision of another clinical
psychologist. See also psychologist.
The act or process of knowing or perceiving.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
A system of psychotherapy based on the premise
that distorted or dysfunctional thinking, which influences a person's
mood or behavior, is common to all psycho social problems. The focus
of therapy is to identify the distorted thinking and to replace it with
more rational, adaptive thoughts and beliefs.
A state of prolonged unconsciousness in which a person cannot
respond to spoken commands or mildly painful physical stimuli.
Two or more diseases or conditions existing together in
A type of disruptive behavior disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by a persistent pattern of conduct in which rights of others or age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, with misconduct including aggression to people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules; it is classified as childhood-onset or adolescent-onset depending on whether the behavior begins before or after the age of ten.
Counselling encompasses a broad set of approaches and goals that are essentially
aimed at helping an individual with problem solving - solving long-standing
problems in the family or at work; or solving sudden major problems.
A belief that is resistant to reason or contrary to actual fact. Common delusions
include delusions of persecution, delusions about one's importance (sometimes
called delusions of grandeur), or delusions of being controlled by others.
A decline in a person's level of intellectual functioning. Dementia includes
memory loss as well as difficulties with language, simple calculations, planning
or decision-making, and motor (muscular movement) skills.
Developmental dyslexia is the selective impairment of reading skills despite
normal intelligence, sensory acuity, and instruction. Several perceptual
studies have suggested that dyslexic subjects process visual information
more slowly than normal subjects. Such visual abnormalities were reported
to be found in more than 75% of the reading-disabled children tested. See
also Reading Disability.
The splitting off of certain mental processes from conscious awareness. Specific
symptoms of dissociation include feelings of unreality, depersonalization,
and confusion about one's identity.
Electrical potentials generated from the brain that can be measured at
the surface of the skull. Provides a direct measure of neural activity.
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Typically, “emotional intelligence” is defined in terms of emotional empathy, attention to, and discrimination of, one's emotions, accurate recognition of one's own and others' moods, mood management or control over emotions, response with appropriate (adaptive) emotions and behaviors in various life situations, especially to stress and difficult situations, balancing of honest expression of emotions against courtesy, consideration, and respect (i.e., possession of good social skills and communication skills)
Seizures are sudden alterations in behaviour or motor function caused by
an electrical discharge from the brain. Most single seizures do not recur
or require treatment. Seizures may be provoked by acute events including
infection, head injury, chemical imbalance, stroke or brain tumor.
A cluster of high-order capacities, which include selective attention,
behavioral planning and response inhibition, the manipulation of information
in problem-solving tasks, and the regulation of behaviour.
A sensory experience, usually involving either sight or hearing, of something
that does not exist outside the mind.
A false visual perception of an object that others perceive correctly. A common
example is the number of sightings of "UFOs" that turn out to be airplanes
or weather balloons.
A disorder in basic psychological processes involved in understanding or
using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect
ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or use mathematical
calculations. The term includes conditions such as perceptual disability,
minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
Resonance Imaging (MRI)
MRI uses radio frequency waves to provide direct visualization
and quantification of fat. The sharp image contrast of MRI allows clear
separation of adipose tissue from surrounding, non lipid structures.
A high mood that is of distinct severity and where the individual is
often psychotic (that is, with delusions and/or hallucinations).
More than any other part of our body, our brain, provided with ongoing information or feedback, can train itself. Neurofeedback (also called EEG or Electroencephalogram Biofeedback) is a non-invasive learning strategy, which provides information about a person's unique brainwave characteristics, while training them to change their brainwave patterns. Neurofeedback is used as a method of relaxation, and to address many health concerns, some of which include ADD/ADHD, pain management, mental health problems, seizures, and sleep disorders.
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central
and peripheral nervous systems such as Alzheimer's Dementia.
The branch of psychology that deals with functional relationships between the
nervous system, and cerebral or mental functions such
as language, memory, attention and perception.
Domination of thoughts or feelings by a persistent idea, desire, or image.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A type of disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a recurrent pattern of defiant, hostile, disobedient, and negativistic behavior directed toward those in authority, including such actions as defying the requests or rules of adults, deliberately annoying others, arguing, spitefulness, and vindictiveness that occur much more frequently than would be expected on the basis of age and developmental stage.
Organic brain disorder
An organic brain disorder refers to impaired brain function due to damage or
deterioration of brain tissue.
An excess of body weight but not necessarily body fat; a body
mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9.
The number of events, e.g., instances of a given disease or
other condition, in a given population at a designated time.
Psychologists are specialists in human behaviour, development and functioning.
They have expertise in conducting research and applying research findings in
order to reduce distress, address behaviour and psychological problems, and
to promote mental health and rational behaviour in individuals and groups.
Psychotherapy is an extended treatment (months to years) in which a relationship
is built up between the therapist and the patient. The relationship is then
used to explore aspects of the person's past in great depth and to show how
these have led to the current problems and difficulties. Understanding this
link between past and present - insight - is thought to resolve the difficulties
and make the person less vulnerable to maladaptive behaviours and mood problems.
Reading disability, or dyslexia, is defined as a type of learning
disability in which children fail to master the fundamentals of reading,
such as letter recognition and sound blending. Such children should show
adequate intelligence and educational opportunities meaning
that the term reading
not refer to children who are dull, have had poor educational experiences,
or have missed schooling. See
A sudden attack or convulsion characterized by generalized
muscle spasms and loss of consciousness.
Sudden loss of function of part of the brain because of loss of
blood flow. Stroke may be caused by a clot (thrombosis) or rupture (hemorrhage)
of a blood vessel to the brain.
Touch screen technology is a new visual and computer aided device where
the computer screen acts as an interface to the computer environment by
simple touches to the screen. It provides very accurate recording of the
timing and frequency of response.
Dementia with a stepwise deteriorating course (a series of small strokes)
and a patchy distribution of neurologic deficits (affecting some functions
and not others) caused by cerebrovascular disease.
An active system for temporarily storing and manipulating information needed
in the execution of complex cognitive tasks (e.g. learning, reasoning and